Friday, June 19, 2009

Music in Ancient Egypt

Although music existed in prehistoric Egypt, the evidence for it becomes secure only in the historical (or "dynastic" or "pharaonic") period--after 3100 BCE. Music formed an important part of Egyptian life, and musicians occupied a variety of positions in Egyptian society. Music found its way into many contexts in Egypt: temples, palaces, workshops, farms, battlefields and the tomb. Music was an integral part of religious worship in ancient Egypt, so it is not surprising that there were gods specifically associated with music, such as Hathor and Bes (both were also associated with dance, fertility and childbirth).

All the major categories of musical instruments (percussion, wind, stringed) were represented in pharaonic Egypt. Percussion instruments included hand-held drums, rattles, castanets, bells, and the sistrum--a highly important rattle used in religious worship. Hand clapping too was used as a rhythmic accompaniment. Wind instruments included flutes (double and single, with reeds and without) and trumpets. Stringed instruments included harps, lyres, and lutes--plucked rather than bowed. Instruments were frequently inscribed with the name of the owner and decorated with representations of the goddess (Hathor) or god (Bes) of music. Both male and female voices were also frequently used in Egyptian music.

Professional musicians existed on a number of social levels in ancient Egypt. Perhaps the highest status belonged to temple musicians; the office of "musician" (shemayet) to a particular god or goddess was a position of high status frequently held by women. Musicians connected with the royal household were held in high esteem, as were certain gifted singers and harp players. Somewhat lower on the social scale were musicians who acted as entertainers for parties and festivals, frequently accompanied by dancers. Informal singing is suggested by scenes of workers in action; captions to many of these pictures have been interpreted as words of songs. Otherwise there is little evidence for the amateur musician in pharaonic Egypt, and it is unlikely that musical achievement was seen as a desirable goal for individuals who were not professionals.

The ancient Egyptians did not notate their music before the Graeco-Roman period, so attempts to reconstruct pharaonic music remain speculative. Representational evidence can give a general idea of the sound of Egyptian music. Ritual temple music was largely a matter of the rattling of the sistrum, accompanied by voice, sometimes with harp and/or percussion. Party/festival scenes show ensembles of instruments (lyres, lutes, double and single reed flutes, clappers, drums) and the presence (or absence) of singers in a variety of situations.

No comments:

Post a Comment

Search This Blog

Back to TOP Back to TOP

Labels

NATURE OF GOD (325) KOOL CARS (268) COOL FLOWERS (224) COOL DIGITAL ART (206) GROUP PHOTOS (196) COOL PAINTINGS (193) COOL KIDS (188) COOL NATURE (177) ANIMALS (153) COOL FACE (153) JAZZY FACE (148) KOOL DESI (145) FACE_OF_SOUL (127) COOL DESI FACE (125) COOL FRUITS (124) KOOL BOLLYWOOD (124) COOL DESI (122) COOOL A1 (118) COOL BIKES (111) BIRDS (105) JAZZY BEAUTY (105) KOOL BUILDINGS (101) FLOWERS OF GOD (99) PAINTINGS (91) SAREE (86) COOL BEAUTY (78) FACE (73) COOL BRIDE (71) JAZZY WEDDING (70) TRANSPORT (70) COOL MODEL (68) JAZZY SMILE (61) WILDLIFE (58) SHIPS (57) WEAPON (57) CLOUDS (55) INSECT (55) COOL SUNSET (54) FUNNY (54) Make Money Online (54) SALWAR_ KAMEEZ (54) Airplanes (53) TREES OF GOD (53) Buildings Places (52) KOOL FANTASY (52) COOL ARCHITECTURE (51) FANTASY (51) MOUNTAIN OF GOD (50) SUN SET (50) UNDERWATER (45) COOL STILL PHOTOS (44) AUTOMOBILE (43) LEAVES (42) INNOCENT FACE (39) AMAZING (38) 3D (37) ANGELS FACE (37) BELIVE IT OR NOT (37) PEOPLES OF PAKISTAN (37) DULHAN_BRIDES (36) FLOWERS (36) ANGEL_FACE (35) KOOL 3D (35) ARMY (34) BOLLYWOOD (34) STRANGE (34) TECHNOLOGY (34) FAIRY_FACE (33) DREAM (32) Meditation Mind (32) god (32) COOL DREAM (31) DIGITAL ART (29) HUSN_E_MASHRIQ (29) SANWALI_SALONI (29) ANGELS (28) DRESSES (28) Energy Light (28) Google Adsense (28) JAZZY MODEL (28) BRILLIANT_NATURE (27) GORGEOUS SMILE (26) VIRGIN SOUL (26) COOL FASHION (25) TRAVEL OF WORLD (25) Blogging (24) FAIL (24) PHOTOJENIC_FACE (24) DREAMY_FACE (23) BUTTERFLY (22) COOL SMILES (22) MOON (22) SOUL_IN_SALWAR_KAMEEZ (21) BUTTERFLY_SAREE (20) KOOL NIGHT VIEW (20) COOL CELEBRITIES (19) DULHAN (19) INNOCENT DESI (19) KOOL EYES (19) SEA WILDLIFE (19) BRILLIANT SAREE (18) NATURE (18) PAKISTANI KIDS (18) JAZZY FASHION (17) OWN Website (17) COOL GREENERY (16) DESI SMILE (16) FASHION (16) FUTURE (16) HORSE IN BEAUTY (16) REPTILE (16) SAWALI SALONI A1 (16) Business (15) COOL BIRDS (15) FAIRIES_GROUP (15) SEO (15) VIRGIN FACE (15) WATER FALL (15) ACCIDENT (14) AMAZING WILDLIFE (14) BUILDING (14) COOL EYES (14) EYES (14) FAIRY (14) HOLI (14) MEHNDI ART (14) NUMEROLOGY (14) SAWALI SALONI (14) SEO♥ (14) WAR (14) BIKES (13) PAK SALWAR KAMEEZ (13) ANGELS MELA (12) Affiliate (12) Art Of Desi (12) BEAUTY OF PAKISTAN (12) COOL BUTTERFLY (12) MOTHER IN LOVE (12) WILDLIFE IN LOVE (12) Blog Marketing (11) DREAMY_FANTASY (11) EZINE♥ (11) FORUMS♥ (11) PARTY BEAUTY (11) RAIN BOW (11) Traffic Generator (11) eBAY (11) ANGEL (10) ART (10) Investments (10) NAMES OF ALLAH (10) PAKISTANI POLICE (10) TRAVEL (10) WATCHES (10) WONDER (10) BRILLIANT_FLOWERS (9) EMAIL MARKETING (9) FIGHTING (9) GLAXY (9) Niqab Hijab (9) ANGELS_GROUP (8) COOL JEWELRY (8) COOL UNDERWATER (8) DREAMY (8) Environment (8) FOREX (8) GREENERY (8) MEHNDI_NIGHT (8) OLD IS GOLD (8) Tantra Kamasutra (8) COOL HIJAB--NIQAB (7) Domain (7) PHOTOGRAPHER (7) AMAZING WONDERS (6) Ancient Egypt (6) Articles (6) COOL MOON (6) CREATIVE PHOTOS (6) Decorating (6) FUNNY PAKISTAN (6) INTERNET (6) ISLAND (6) KOOL BOTTLES (6) MENDHI (6) PROMOTION♥ (6) PayPerPost (6) SMS ADS (6) SO HOT (6) SOUL_FLOWERS (6) UNIVERSE (6) Art Of Saree (5) COLORs (5) COLOURFUL NATURE (5) DIGITAL _ART (5) E Commerce (5) JAZZY PAINTINGS (5) SHADI_WEDDING (5) Viral (5) AIR FORCE (4) AMAZING PAKISTANI ART (4) Astrology Astronomy (4) BEAUTIFUL GIRLS (4) BOAT (4) BRILLIANT (4) Dreams Sleep (4) Dreamy_Art (4) FLAG OF PAKISTAN (4) Family Budget (4) GRASS (4) Galaxies (4) HEER_RANJHA (4) HIJAB (4) HOROSCOPE (4) HOT (4) INNOCENT (4) KOOL XP (4) LOVE OF INNOCENT (4) MOSQUE (4) MOVIES (4) Mysteries (4) PAK ARMY (4) PRINCES (4) RAINY DAY (4) SEASON (4) SHUI SITE (4) SNOW (4) girls (4) ADWORD♥ (3) Amazon (3) DESI (3) DIGITAL_ART (3) FABOLOUS_PAINTING (3) FREELANCING (3) GOOGLE♥ (3) JAZZY CLEBRTY (3) List Building (3) MUSIC (3) PAY-PER CLICK♥ (3) PAY_PER_LINK (3) Paid Surveys (3) RSS (3) SPAM♥ (3) SPORTS (3) AMAZING BEAUTY (2) BEAUTY (2) BEAUTY OF KILASH (2) BRILLIANT_ANIMALS (2) COMPUTER (2) COOL (2) Cool Gadget (2) DESERT (2) DREAMY_SUNSET (2) EAGLE A1 (2) EYE (2) Expensive (2) FISH (2) GOD_DREAM (2) HEALTH TIPS (2) HERO (2) Hourse (2) LAILA MAJNO (2) LAKE OF GOD (2) LANDSCAPES (2) LOVE PAKISTAN (2) MOUNTAIN (2) PARROTS (2) RECORDS (2) Reiki (2) SEASON OF LIFE (2) TIGER (2) VIEW IN AIR (2) WILD NATURE (2) ANIMAL (1) BRILLIANT_BIRDS (1) BRILLIANT_INNOCENT (1) Blog Directories (1) CAREER (1) COOL PETS (1) COOL_SPORTS (1) DREAMY SHOTS (1) FACE CARE (1) Furniture (1) GATE ART (1) Gold Trading (1) Home Remedy (1) LIPs (1) Marketing (1) READING eMAILS (1) SEA OF GOD (1) STONE OF SOUL (1) TOTKAY (1) ca3 (1)